ABSTRACT

Cross-checking has been described as the ability of individuals or groups to assess the validity or accuracy of others’ assumptions or actions (Patterson et al. 2007). Thus, cross-checking may provide opportunity to detect, reveal, and intervene in erroneous actions or inactions before they cause harm (Carthey, de Leval and Reason 2001; Klein 2006; Klein et al. 2005b; Patterson, Render and Ebright 2002; Patterson et al. 2007; Uhlig et al. 2001). It is also a means by which the consequences of errors or anomalies may be detected and mitigated (Helmreich 2000; Klein et al. 2005b; Mudge 1998; Woods 2005).