Childbirth means a sudden change in glucose and insulin homeostasis for both the mother and the newborn child. An important threat for the neonate in the immediate postpartum period is neonatal hypoglycemia, related in part to recent maternal hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinism. Irrespective of the ongoing discussion on precise cutoff levels in plasma glucose concentrations and the potential long-term consequences, current endeavors are aimed at preventing neonatal hypoglycemia as well as ensuring rapid detection and treatment. In this chapter, glycemic physiology and pathophysiology during the later stages of normal and diabetic pregnancy are briefly described followed by a description of current glucose monitoring and insulin treatment management options as well as some organizational issues.