174Rapid pace of industrialization and its resulting by-products have affected the environment by producing hazardous wastes and poisonous gas fumes and smokes, which have been released to the environment. Nanotechnology has been extensively studied by researchers as it offers potential advantages like low cost, reuse, and high efficiency in removing and recovering the pollutants and has also proved to be one of the finest and advanced ways for wastewater treatment. Nanoparticles when used as adsorbents cause pollutant removal/separation from water, whereas nanoparticles used as catalysts for chemical or photochemical oxidation effect the destruction of contaminants. Present scientist evaluated the four classes of nanoscale materials that are functional materials for water purification: (1) dendrimers, (2) metal-containing nanoparticles, (3) zeolites, and (4) carbonaceous nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are effective for removal of metals, dyes, and pesticides from industrial wastewater and hence control the water pollution caused by textile and printing industries, and their convergence with current treatment technologies present great opportunities to revolutionize water and wastewater treatment.