116In today's highly integrated circuits and systems, satisfying the functionality, frequency, and thermal design power (TDP) requirements is not adequate. It is essential to ensure the security and privacy of the overall system. The contemporary business model involves the untrusted third party in every step of the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing process—from design to synthesis and layout all the way to fabrication and packaging. The trend of integrating third-party intellectual property (IP) blocks into the design makes the problem more complex. Broadly, the attacks on hardware could fall under:

Malicious modifications: The hardware Trojans can be inserted in the ICs, which causes malfunctioning of IC or leak information for instance.

Cloning/fake IC: The adversary can imitate the design, fabricate, and sell at a lower price, which lowers the market for the genuine IC.

Hacking/eavesdropping: The adversary eavesdrops on the communication channel to crack the secret key for malicious intent.

Side-channel attacks: Side channels, for example, current and voltage, are monitored to extract the secret information from the device.

Reverse engineering: IC design details are revealed by peeling off the layers of the fabrication process using chemicals and mechanical methods, which in turn reveal the secret design information.

IC recycling: Unused or barely used ICs are recycled from older PCBs and sold at a reduced price compared to genuine new ICs from the original manufacturer.