This chapter describes a study through environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of the Euphorbia antisyphilitica (Candelilla). A historical overview of the evolution of this microscopic technique and its scientific impact is also presented. The study was conducted on the surface of the candelilla stems through the ESEM mode with conventional microscopic analysis and of compositional chemical contrast and for the first time that is presented the elemental chemical composition of candelilla wax before and after applying a purification treatment wax. The results indicated the presence of important chemical elements from the point of view of biotechnological and materials science areas in order to understand its behavior and reaction mechanisms in some of its many applications. Furthermore some important practices are detailed in the methodology of the preparation and operation of materials and methods.