New and better electronic devices have inspired researchers to build intelligent machines operating in a fashion similar to the human nervous system. Fascination with this goal started when McCulloch and Pitts (1943) developed their model of an elementary computing neuron and when Hebb (1949) introduced his learning rules. A decade latter Rosenblatt (1958) introduced the perceptron concept. In the early 1960s Widrow and Holf (1960, 1962) developed intelligent systems such as ADALINE and MADALINE. Nillson (1965) in his book Learning Machines summarized many developments of that time. The publication of the Mynsky and Paper (1969) book, with some discouraging results, stopped for sometime the fascination with artificial neural networks, and achievements in the mathematical foundation of the backpropagation algorithm by Werbos (1974) went unnoticed. The current rapid growth in the area of neural networks started with the Hopfield (1982, 1984) recurrent network, Kohonen (1982) unsupervised training algorithms, and a description of the backpropagation algorithm by Rumelhart et al. (1986).