By 2050, world human population is expected to go past 9.5 billion. To address the needs of the teeming billions is a huge challenge for the scientists. It is imperative that unequivocal plans are put in place to keep equilibrium between pace of growth of human population and production of food along with health care, energy and environmental concerns if the human race has to survive and flourish. Plant biotechnology promises lucrative scopes for food, health, energy, and environmental securities for mankind in future. Several recombinant plants have been cloned to address nutritional requirements along with environmental concerns. For example, Golden rice has been created with abundant vitamin A, Flavr Savr tomato ensures post-harvest quality for a long time, SUSIBA-2 rice boosts production along with cut down on global warming due to methane, Bt gene cloned in several plants including cotton, brinjal (egg plant), maize etc reduces damage due to worms. Along with intensive research on biodiversity, the traditional plant food including the coarse cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables need to be revived, particularly those known in the developing countries like India, China etc. Post-harvest protection of the plant produces is another area that developing countries like India have to strengthen. In the recent years, it has been observed that tons of procured agricultural products are left uncared leading to biodeterioration jeopardizing food security. Traditional system of medicine including Unani, Chinese, and Ayurved has a bright future from the standpoint of reliable healthcare security at affordable costs. Intensive research and development is necessary also to modernize the traditional health care system that is often referred to as an alternative system of medicine. Plant and other biological resources are expected to play crucial role in the energy management. Some countries, like Brazil, have managed up to 60% of their energy requirement through these resources. Total energy demand of India is going to increase from 800 Mtoe at present to 1223 Mtoe by 2035. Multi-national projects should be launched for tapping abiotic and biotic sources of methane in a way that brightens the prospect of energy output with concomitant reduction in global warming.