4The science of ‘biotechnology’ has received enormous attention recently due to its unlimited potential to benefit humanity. Biotechnology uses biological materials to create novel products for agricultural, pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental applications. The history of biotechnology begins with zymotechnology, which originated with a focus on brewing techniques. By the start of 20th century, zymotechnology began to expand and the concept of industrial fermentation gave rise to biotechnology. After domestication of crops and animals, humans began to make cheese, curd, and wine using simple fermentation techniques. Cheese is considered as one of the first products of biotechnology, as it was prepared by adding rennet (an enzyme) to sour milk. During the 1940s, the discovery of penicillin was a dramatic event. Although discovered in England, it was produced industrially in the U.S. using a deep fermentation process. Penecillin was one of the most important success stories of last century and doctors called it a “miracle drug”. The introduction of principles of genetic engineering brought biotechnology to the forefront of science in society. With the development of synthetic human insulin, the biotechnology industry started to grow rapidly. Genetic engineering remains the centre of scientific discussion in modern world especially with ever emerging fields of gene therapy, stem cell technology, and genetically modified organisms. Although most of these scientific advancements are very recent but the service of biotechnology to society began centuries ago.