Radiomics is the high-throughput extraction of many quantitative image features with the goal of creating mineable data (Kumar et al. 2012; Lambin et al. 2012). Thus, it is a fundamentally big data approach to quantitative imaging. Although radiomics is relative new field, quantitative imaging is not. A method for the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of primary bone tumors was reported in Lodwick et al. (1963). In the same year, Lodwick et al. discussed methods for coding Roentgen images for computer-aided analysis of lung tumors (Figure 14.1). By the 1990s, CAD was being applied to 220new imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, ultrasonography, and mammography (Chan et al. 1990; Dawant et al. 1993; Vyborny and Giger 1994; Yamamoto et al. 1994; Rasheed et al. 1995). However, the effectiveness of the techniques was limited by the quality of the images and availability of computer hardware and software.