Chromium compounds are environmental contaminants present in ground water, soil, and industrial effluents, due to their extensive use in various industries. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species, although recent studies indicate that Cr(III) causes genotoxicity. Fungi are a major component of the microbiota in soils and mineral substrates, and they are important as decomposer organisms, playing a fundamental role in biogeo-chemical cycles of elements The study of the interactions between fungi and chromium has been helpful to understand the mechanisms by which these organisms can survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI), how they manage to detoxify and remove the oxyanion, and the potential for biotechnological application of some of these processes. The fungal mechanisms of interaction with chromium include transport, biosorption, bioaccumulation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III); biosorption and Cr(VI) reduction have been proposed as potential biotechnological tools for the bioremediation of Cr pollution, using bioreactors or by in situ treatments. In this review the interaction of fungi with chromium is summarized, emphasizing the importance of new research avenues.