The threat posed by violent extremism has substantially evolved over the years and particularly rapidly recently. These changes are only partly driven by the nature of the terrorist groups. They are also driven by changes in technologies available to such groups and so we can predict one thing with certainty: the threat will continue to evolve. Predicting how it will evolve is a somewhat more difficult challenge. To do that, we must go back in time in order to chart the trajectories of both violent extremist groups and the technologies on which they have been, and are, dependent. We must start by looking both historically and internationally. Doing so, however, is well worth the effort. After all

[T]he defeat of IS in Iraq was loudly proclaimed by US President Donald Trump and his Iraqi counterpart …. Their declaration came far too early .… IS remains a potent insurgent and terrorist movement. If anything, the global threat might have increased…. 1