To develop the Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) system in Indonesia, competency standards have been borrowed globally and implemented as part of the national agenda for skills recognition and qualifications. Little research exists regarding the effectiveness of the implementation of the Indonesian version of competency standards, named Indonesian National Competency Standards (SKKNI), in Indonesian TVET institutions. This study conducted empirical surveys based on comprehensive questionnaires, followed by individual and group semi-structured interviews, as well as the analyses of relevant documents. It involved participants from two types of institutions in Indonesian TVET that were managed by two different ministries, together with implementers from relevant institutions. The first institution type were the Vocational Training Centers (BLKs) of the Ministry of Manpower, which assumed the leadership of the development of the SKKNI policy. The second type were the Vocational Senior Secondary Schools (SMKs) of the Ministry of Education and Culture, which was the main regulator and provider of education and training in education institutions nationally. Our findings revealed that: the policy of SKKNI was poorly established; the resources for implementation of SKKNI (financial, curricular and training workshops) were limited; there was tension and rivalry between the two ministries and a lack of coordination and cooperation in implementation; the commitment of implementers was generally insufficient, although participants from a small number of TVET institutions implementing the SKKNI showed a high commitment to implementation; the support from external stakeholders (industry and the public) was insufficient; teacher disposition was a significant contributor and predictor of teacher performance in implementing two aspects of SKKNI (certification and curricular aspects), with certified teachers showing better disposition and performance in implementing SKKNI.