392Brazil uses large amounts of pesticides on crops, and the social and environmental issues surrounding the use of these products are complex and multidimensional. In addition to regulating the registration, usage, and monitoring of pesticide residues in water and food, this chapter provides an overview of this issue, based on research showing their harmful impact on human health. This review includes a review of the literature based on search results in PubMed and Scielo, analysis of Brazilian legislation concerning the usage release process and the monitoring of pesticide residues, and a discussion of the results of Pesticide Residue Analysis Program in Food. The results indicate that despite a recent regulation process, Brazil has an ineffective monitoring system, which has been characterized by a few government actions directed to a strict control process and reduction of pesticide use.