Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease, comprising deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common and potentially fatal cardiovascular condition, which reoccurs in one quarter of patients. Pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) may result. The risk of VTE increases with age, cancer, male gender, hypercoagulability, as well as other conditions and is particularly prevalent in hospitalized patients where VTE prophylaxis with mechanical and/or anticoagulant methods should be considered. Anticoagulant treatment with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), and warfarin for three months is recommended. Extended or indefinite therapy should be considered for patients at high risk for recurrent VTE, including those with unprovoked or recurrent VTE, thrombophilia, and in males, among others. Risk stratification for recurrence with use of compression ultrasonography (CUS) and D-dimer testing is recommended when considering extended therapy.