Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major and wellknown health problem. It was first described as large air spaces in human lung specimens by Ruysch in 1691 1 and by Floyer in 1698. 2 A few decades later, the first comprehensive clinical and pathological report of a case was published by Watson in 1764. 3 Despite optimal medical therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation, many patients remain disabled and even now lung transplantation is still an option only for a few.