Drug development in the United States is both risky and expensive. The cost of developing a drug has increased from approximately $500 million in 1990 1 to more than $2.6 billion in 2015. 2 , 3 At the same time, the research and development (R&D) costs of the pharmaceutical industry have doubled from approximately 12% of sales to 21%. 1 , 4 As of 2017, only about 12% of drugs with clinical trials will be successful, and the drug development process takes at least 10 years. 4