ABSTRACT

Animals are part and parcel of human life that are dependent for various needs ranging from draft, meat, milk, animal byproducts, pet, human culture, and entertainment. During the interaction with animals and birds, including wildlife, humans can be encountered by pathogenic agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasitic organisms. Zoonoses are those diseases, which will transfer between animals/insects and humans naturally. More than 60% of the human diseases will come under the zoonotic diseases. The consequences can be direct in the form of morbidity and mortality or indirect in the form of loss of man-hours, loss of livestock, loss to the meat and milk industry, travel, and tourism, etc. Varying levels of monitoring and surveillance of zoonoses have complicated the quantification of outbreaks; and inadequate collaboration among the human and animal health sector is another added challenge. Systematic planning and organized approach in detection of zoonoses, cessation of transmission, preparedness, and continuous research can help in curtailing zoonoses.