ABSTRACT

The contamination of milk and milk products can occur with heavy metals due to industrialization and human activities, etc. This review chapter discusses: heavy metals and their toxic levels, recommendation level, sources of contamination, contamination in different milk products, health effects and detection methods (such as: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric technique (DPASV), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), induced coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, ionic liquid, and bismuth oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode, inductivity coupled plasma mass spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, chronopotentio-metric stripping analysis, and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy).