Mars is the planet that most closely resembles Earth. Exploring Mars benefits the identification of the origin of life on the planet and potential habitats for human beings. This chapter describes the highlights of the recent Mars landing exploration missions by NASA and the European Space Agency and introduces the first Mars exploration mission from China. Referring to the previous and planned Mars exploration missions, this chapter also presents a preliminary study of the profile design of the first Mars exploration mission from China, including the landing site selection, main engineering constraints and the entry, descent and landing process. Finally, the key challenges and verification of the mission are discussed. The studies presented in this chapter can provide a useful reference for future Mars exploration missions.