Italy is a country with a long-standing tradition in studies of Natural Sciences. In this country, the first botanical gardens of the whole world have been founded in Pisa and Padua; Genoa, Florence, Naples host natural history museums and research institutions among the oldest in Europe. These institutions are today still active in biodiversity research, together with many University departments. Italy boasts of having hosted hundreds of native and foreign scholars, who, with a peak of activity in the nineteenth century, left a heritage of great value for future generations. After a break due to the war events of the beginning of the twentieth century, the research on the territory has been resumed with increasing dynamism. In this way, the whole national territory is well known. Every year, new species of plants and insects are described. This testifies the continuity of fieldwork carried out by professionals and amateurs who often turn to research facilities to benefit of the support the modern genetic investigation methodologies.