This chapter deals with the origin-based classification of gums and their use as nanoencapsulant for targeted and controlled release of bioactives, probiotics, and other drugs. An overview of available information along with recent advances in gum-based delivery systems is also given in the chapter. In addition, some plausible future ideas are discussed about the use of gums as wall materials in different encapsulation technologies. Technological advances have led to increased interest with regard to nanoencapsulation for controlled and targeted delivery, predominantly due to poor encapsulation efficiency, consumer health concerns, environmentalissues, and economic cutbacks affiliated therewith. Hence, academicians and industrialists are now more focused on developing polysaccharides, in particular,nanogum-based delivery systems. These nanogums satisfy all dominant features (biodegradability, biocompatibility, remarkable cell membrane penetrability, high drug-carrying capacities, pH-dependent therapeutic unloading, ability to have a multifunctionality, and prolonged circulating time) making them an encouraging wall material for use in nanoencapsulation technologies.