In this study, higher education system and the historical development of higher education in Turkey were examined. One of the organizations which have the most important tasks in the development of countries is higher education organizations. When higher education organizations are mentioned, universities come to mind. At first, concept of the university emerged with the establishment of Bologna Universities. Previously, universities addressed elite people; in 19th century universities showed general public service an understanding and has been continuing developments in this direction. Historical process of the higher education system in Turkey can be examined in three periods as madrasahs, Ottoman, and Republican periods, as well as can be considered as the models that applied in universities. From this point of view, the Turkish higher education system is examined in three periods as the classical period which cannot be described as a complete model until 1773, as “Continental European Model” between 1773–1981 and “Anglo-Saxon Model” after 1981 and over. As a result reforms and changes have been made in the higher education system from time to time. Referring to the reforms and changes to show parallels with the political events of the changes carried out in higher education in Turkey and the Turkish shaping demographic characteristics are noteworthy.