Selenium (Se), as an essential trace element in human and animal life, is the active center of many important selenoenzymes (Adadi et al. 2019). At present, there are 25 kinds of human selenoproteins and their key functions in the occurrence and development of complex diseases are still research hotspots (Papp et al. 2007). Our previous work suggested that selenoproteins, as important antioxidants, may have an impact on the occurrence and development of Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD). In the present study, the function of selenoproteins was systematically analyzed by bioinformatics techniques in a genome-wide perspective to identify the core selenoproteins, which can be used in re-recognizing the role of selenoproteins in complex diseases. The mRNA levels of core members of selenoproteins in KBD patients were test by RT-qPCR. Through the above analyses, we aim to identify the core selenoproteins, their main biological functions, and their key signaling pathways. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of core selenoproteins were detected in KBD patients to provide an experimental basis for exploring the pathogenic mechanism of KBD.