Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and is primarily supplied via forages and food crops. Selenium in forages and food crops is dependent on Se content of the soil in areas where there is no other supplementation (Hawkesford et al. 2007, Winkel et al. 2015). The distribution of Se on the earth’s surface varies widely, forming Se-deficient and Se-excessive ecosystems, which affect human and animal health. Yuanzhou District is one of the typical Se-rich areas in China. It is located in the middle of the northern foot of the Luoxiao Mountains, the northern foot of the Wugongshan Mountains in the western part of Jiangxi Province. Its south, west, and north borders are surrounded by mountains. The central and eastern areas are wide and hilly, and the terrain is low. Red earth generally distributes in mountains, accounting for 40% of the study area; lime soil accounts for about 30%; paddy soil accounts for about 17% and fluvo-aquic soil mainly distributed on both sides of Yuanhe River. Information regarding Se background levels in soils is important to prevent Se deficiency, optimize human nutrition, and to prevent toxicological effects (Nakamaru et al. 2005, Gabos et al. 2014). This paper discussed the effects of land use patterns, soil types, and elevations on soil Se content, and explores the relationship between soil Se content and selected ecological factors in the study areas.