Melatonin (MT) is a low-molecular-weight organic compound available in almost all living organisms from bacteria to mammals. It has many important functions in human, animals, and plants, which include regulating circadian rhythms in animals to controlling senescence in plants (Tan et al. 2012). Presently, available information is lacking on the presence of melatonin in different plant species, as well as on its biosynthesis and mechanisms of action, and its effects on commercial crop production (Reiter et al. 2015). Melatonin may improve storage life and quality of fruits and vegetables and have a role in vascular tissue reconnection during grafting. In addition, it may modify root architecture and influence nutrient uptake by roots. Another potentially important aspect related to melatonin is the production of melatonin-rich food crops (cereals, fruits, and vegetables) through the approach of biofortification. This strategy may improve nutrition and increase plant resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses and lead to improved crop with nutraceutical value (Yin et al. 2013, Li et al. 2016, Nawaz et al. 2016).