Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals and human beings. An adequate dietary intake of Se is necessary to keep humans, livestock and poultry healthy. Endemic Keshan-Beck disease on Loess Plateau was found to be related with low Se environments. In the 1970’s, the prevalence of endemic Kashan-Beck disease was as high as 30% in two counties on southern part of Loess Plateau (Li et al. 1992). The soils in these areas are extremely low in Se, and the main crop – wheat – Se has less than 50 μg/kg (Liu et al. 2016). In recent years, there are still new cases of Keshan-Beck reported in this area. Whether the residents acquire enough Se via dietary intake to maintain their health is still unknown. A questionnaire survey was carried out in two counties to evaluate residents’ dietary Se intake regarding endemic Keshan-Beck disease on Loess Plateau. Field experiments were carried on Loess Plateau at multiple wheat-growing field sites where we investigated the response of wheat and maize to Se fertilization.