Since the discovery of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), there have been continuous challenges in their application. Originally proposed as natural microbial stressors for the control of foodborne pathogens in various food products, nowadays their proposed applications are being spread far beyond the food area. Bacteriocins were proposed as effective antimicrobials for the control of important human and veterinary pathogens. Applied as a single antibacterial, or in combination with antibiotics, the effect of the pathogens’ inhibition is remarkable and opens new avenues for exploring applications of the almost one century known proteinaceous antimicrobials known as bacteriocins. In the last two decades, LAB bacteriocins were also described as promising anti-viral agents and as antimicrobials with effect on some pathogenic eukaryotes such as Candida albicans, and even as potential tool for eradication of difficult to control microorganisms such as Mycobacterium spp. and anti-cancer drugs. Apart from their application as purified to homogeneity (e.g. medical applications) or partially purified (e.g. food preservation) preparations, there is a trend for using live LAB cells that can be applied as probiotics with the ability to produce bacteriocins and to be effectively utilized in modern medicine.