The world of science and engineering today is witnessing immense challenges and drastic changes. Green engineering, green technology, and environmental protection are interrelated to each other in the areas of scientific vision and scientific might. Sustainability, in a similar manner, is linked with green engineering and green technology by an unsevered umbilical cord. In this chapter, the author focuses on the scientific needs, the futuristic vision, and the immense scientific research pursuit in the field of green engineering, green chemistry, sustainable development, and environmental sustainability. Sustainable development and environmental management are today linked with each other by an umbilical cord. This chapter presents profoundly the scientific success in the field of nano-technology and green engineering with the sole purpose of furtherance of science and technology. Mankind’s immense scientific prowess, the world of scientific validation, and the futuristic vision of environmental engineering science all lead to a long and visionary way in the true emancipation of environmental sustainability and green engineering. Nano-technology applications in environmental protection are the cornerstone 116of the research endeavor in this chapter. Global climate change, frequent environmental disasters, and the depletion of fossil fuel resources are today challenging the vast scientific fabric of might and vision. The author deeply envisions the need of nanotechnology in environmental protection and the success of green engineering in the advancement of science and engineering globally.