Even before ‘sustainable development’ became the buzzword of environmental discourse, India had been making efforts to generate energy from alternative sources in order to meet its energy demand in a sustainable manner. This was guided by two primary considerations — one, of achieving energy security and second, of promoting energy access. A country which meets nearly 47% of its total primary energy demand with imported fossil fuels and whose demand is growing at the rate of 4% per annum, cannot be oblivious to potential 2disruptions in energy supply. It is critical for India to explore all sources of energy so as to devise a robust, stable, and secure energy system for its citizens. Limits in terms of natural resource endowments make it further necessary for Indian energy planners to devise an energy mix that is sustainable.