Food packaging materials available in the market are mainly made of synthetic plastic derived from fossil resources. However, growing economic and environmental threats related to their life cycle have fostered the search for alternative sustainable raw-materials to produce biodegradable products. In this sense, cellulose extracted from agroindustrial residues, as an available, renewable and low-cost polymer, is a suitable feedstock to produce bio-based packaging. Although research in this field is still limited, cellulose in the form of nanostructures, regenerated products, derivatives and fibers have shown potential to produce packaging components with enhanced properties. This review summarizes the up-to-date developments/applications of cellulosic materials obtained from agroindustrial residues in bio-based packaging, including some prospective applications resulting from the introduction of smart and active functionalities.