Modern cancer medicine depends highly on the detection of selective biomarkers to support therapeutic regimens, which have also become more and more precise. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) had a paradigmatic role in demonstrating the correlation between an accurate molecular assessment and patient prognosis or treatment success. CML was also a key case study in the development of targeted cancer therapies. However, there is still room for improvement and mitigation of the drawbacks of current procedures in CML management.