Agroindustrial wastes and effluents from synthetic dyes have characteristics and chemical structures extremely polluting the environment, so, among the alternatives for their remediation, mycoremediation presents satisfactory results in toxicity and staining removal, besides requiring low costs in small scale. Mycoremediation is the treatment of wastewater or residues by means of fungi. White rot fungi, for example, have a nonspecific extracellular enzyme complex that easily degrades compounds similar to lignin structures, which reduces the potential of pollutants. Within the techniques that add agroindustrial residues treatment for enzymatic activity production and application in synthetic dyes, the most important are those involving biosorption, enzymatic degradation, or the junction of those. It is also possible to highlight factors that enhance the treatment performance, such as pH and temperature control, the increase of enzymatic activity through inducers and dyes concentration. Therefore, this chapter reviews the agroindustrial residues use as a substrate for fungi production and its use in synthetic dyes discoloration.