A global endeavour to safeguard environmental and human health is evolving at a rapid pace. The list of environmental tribulations faced by humanity may be huge, but one solution to tackling our planet’s threats is remarkably small. The use of nanotechnology, often referred to as a ‘key technology of the twenty-first century’, will facilitate the design and development of innovative products and new market potentials, as well as radical medical developments which will revolutionize our future lives. Nanotechnology has the potential to contribute significantly to planetary protection through several remarkable pathways. Nanomaterials (NMs) have facilitated the development of numerous novel green products and technologies, also capable of minimizing the generation of adverse by-products by improved manufacturing processes. NMs have also improved technologies for decontamination and remediation of waste sites, polluted water sources, and air supplies and improved energy technologies.