Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most commonly consumed prepared beverage in the world, and ranks only second to that of water for all beverages consumed. 1,2 Green tea is rich in polyphenolic catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epicatechin (EC; Figure 7.1). Of these, EGCG has received the most extensive study because it is thought to be primarily responsible for the health benefits of green tea. Although green tea is consumed less frequently than black tea, its popularity has increased due to growing knowledge of its health benefits. For example, epidemiological evidence supports that green tea consumption decreases the risk of cardiometabolic disorders and some forms of cancer. 3–15 These findings have laid the foundation to define the bioactivities of green tea, with 128evidence indicating that catechins improve health status through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic benefits.