The surface profile is the intersection of a plane normal to the real surface. First, surface profile sensors operate by scanning laterally point by point in direct contact such as atomic force microscopy (see also Chapter 6). Many different methods have been developed for the noncontact and nondestructive measurement of microsystems and their components. Among others, low-coherence (white-light or coherence scanning) interferometry (LCI), confocal microscopy (CM), and fringe projection are well-established techniques. Scanning white-light interferometry (SWLI) and CM are of increasing interest, because they combine a large measurement range with a very high vertical resolution. Fringe projection is less sensitive, but it offers a higher measurement speed. It also has advantages for medium- and large-sized objects, in which a very high vertical resolution is not needed.