Prior to Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) proposed a multifaceted theory of evolution [Dawkins 1996, Gould 1980, Cochrane 1997]. One aspect of his theory is the notion that characteristics acquired by an organism during its lifetime are inheritable by its offspring. Lamarck proposed this as the means by which organisms passed on specialized traits for surviving in the environment, and this has since become known as Lamarckian evolution or Lamarckism. For example, if a horse developed especially adept leg muscles for negotiating mountainous terrain, Lamarckian evolution suggests that its offspring would inherit similarly muscular legs. Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characteristics maintains that the acquired development of strong legs, through years of exercise in a mountainous environment, will influence the actual genetic makeup of the horse. This altered genetic information is inheritable by the horse’s offspring. This contrasts with the Darwinian tenet that a horse that is genetically predisposed to having muscular legs will probably have offspring with a similar genetic tendency.