The degree to which wildlife utilization can contribute to sustainable and equitable development in Namibia is explored in this chapter. In the past, wildlife was not regarded as a motor for economic growth or rural development. However, experience on commercial farms supplemented by economic research shows that the economic benefits from wildlife utilization could more than double over 10 to 20 years. Local incomes in some historically marginalized rural areas could increase severalfold. Key to this development is the establishment of appropriate property rights for residents, plus opportunities to realize high returns from using wildlife within these property rights. In the commercial farming sector, many of these conditions are in place and wildlife use has already expanded. In the communal areas, the appropriate policy framework is only just being established, and much needs to be done to ensure that benefits to residents from wildlife are optimized. Analysis shows that development of community rights, support for communities and local enterprises, development of wildlife as 164a complement to agriculture, minimization of land use trade-offs, and inclusion of non-consumptive wildlife uses are important components of a strategy for this.