Some present practices in studying ecosystem health are understood more easily when the genesis of the field of ecotoxicology is examined. However, future trends in the field of ecotoxicology will be most affected by (1) a rapidly expanding interest in the field of sustainable development, (2) ensuring delivery of ecosystem services, and (3) shifting emphasis from avoiding harm in ecosystems to promoting robust health. As the problems that must be addressed grow larger in both temporal and spatial scale and more subtle in the magnitude of impact, the tools to address them must change. Continuing increases in human population and an increased level of affluence for many of the world’s people will put unprecedented pressures on natural systems. This will require environmental scientists to adjust to new demands rapidly and policymakers to reduce the lag time between acceptance of an idea by mainstream science and its incorporation into regulatory practices.