A number of international nongovernmental (NGOs) and professional organizations exist that cover a wide range of subject areas and topics. Many of the organizations’ goals, objectives, and activities overlap substantially. And as a result, there exist many possible areas for collaboration and intersupport between the groups. The members of a national professional organization may automatically belong to an umbrella international organization due to existing arrangements or memorandum 38of understanding. Or members of one organization may join an international organization independently. Many professionals participate in several organizations and cross-collaborations at the same time.