This chapter deviates slightly from the main topic of the book; indeed, it is focused not on methods for lung cancer diagnostics but rather on data and approaches that could be used to evaluate the lung cancer risk of a population when exposed to airborne particles.

Airborne particles were recently classified as a group 1 carcinogenic compound by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the scientific community is currently paying a great deal of attention to this pollutant since the dynamics, measurement approach, origin, and health effects of such particles are strongly related to their size and chemical composition.

The carcinogenic effect of the particles is strictly related to the dose of particles inhaled by individuals (and then deposited in their lungs) and to their toxicity (i.e., the concentration of carcinogenic compounds carried by the particles). Both these aspects are considered in the lung cancer model applied here; in particular, different case studies will be shown in the chapter to highlight the contribution of diverse exposure scenarios on the dose and risk received by different populations.