In the last ten years the U.S. industry has invested in excess of 5 billion dollars in the hope that scientific developments in biology will yield new commercial opportunities (Kenney 1986). The industries most involved will be pharmaceuticals, agriculture, energy, forestry, waste processing, and even mining. In most of these applications, with the exception of pharmaceuticals it will be necessary to introduce new genetically modified organisms into the environment [1]. This commercial imperative has led to debate regarding the types and stringency of regulation necessary to ensure public safety.