The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that in developing countries about one person in every five (about 780 million individuals) suffers from chronic malnutrition (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992). For perspective, this total is about three times the population of the United States. How the United States responds in terms of providing food aid will be part of the 1995 agricultural and food policy debate. U.S. food aid issues will likely center not on drastic changes to existing policy, but rather on evaluating the effects of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, which mandated some of the most substantive changes in U.S. food aid in years. Additional changes may represent a response to continuing uncertainties about food needs in countries undergoing political and economic restructuring such as the former Soviet Union, and food needs in chronically food-deficit countries, such as in Sub-Saharan Africa. Given growing global food aid needs, and severe budgetary restrictions in the provision of U.S. food aid, two key issues will likely be how to improve the effectiveness of food aid and the amount of food aid the United States is willing to provide.