With a wide gamut of use, nanocomposites have etched an indelible impression on the canvas of materials science and other domains. The most recent innovative thrust has been directed toward utilization of ion-exchange nanocomposites for electrodialysis. The chapter begins with a note on the design criteria and hallmark attributes of electrodialysis membranes. The major focus is on the fabrication of various ion-exchange nanocomposites using nanomaterials of different dimensions, their physicochemical attributes, the advantages, and the associated challenges. Among a plethora of 216applications, we have specifically stressed upon their biomedical relevance and their applications in the domain of water desalination. The practical pertinence of these materials has been put forth vis-à-vis the challenges and the scope for improvement. Thus, the chapter will be a portal to the current research on electrodialysis membranes, fabricated using different polymeric nanocomposites. This will act as a catalyst in the niche of materials science for the seeding of novel ideas toward the development of commercially viable, industrially and biomedically relevant electrodialysis membranes.