A review of recent research on the environmental fate of chemicals from pulp mills is presented. Key issues that affect the fate of chemicals from pulp mills include the chemistry of effluents, the nature of sediments, interactions with dissolved organic matter, biodegradation/biotransformation of compounds, and the effect of modern pulping technologies. Areas for future research are also considered and these may include determining the physical and chemical properties of compounds produced in modern pulping and bleaching sequences, integrated studies of effluents from modern pulping and bleaching processes in recipients, and the turnover of sediment contaminants in aquatic environments resulting from the historic discharge of effluents from pulp mills that used older technology.