Adequate visualization is critical in vitreoretinal surgery. Using dyes may enhance visualization and help the removal of transparent or semitransparent tissues, including epiretinal membranes (ERMs), the posterior hyaloid, and the internal limiting membrane (ILM). In recent years, indocyanine green (ICG), infracyanine green, and trypan blue have been utilized frequently in vitreoretinal surgery. This chapter discusses the techniques, advantages, disadvantages, and toxicity of ICG and trypan blue in ocular surgery.