Soils are the major source of essential nutrients and water for turfgrass and ornamental growth. The nature of different soils arise from the diversity of components such as: (1) mineral matter — sand, silt, clay, gravel, stones; (2) organic matter — fresh, undecomposed organic matter as well as decomposed organic matter; (3) inorganic chemicals, such as iron oxides, gypsum, calcium carbonate, and many other chemicals; (4) biological entities including microorganisms, worms, mollusks, anthropods, vertebrates, and various plants; and (5) pore space which contains water, air, or both.