A critical analysis of Argyris’s Integrating The Individual and the Organizationwhich forms part of a series of essays and books considering how organisations should be run. The essay explores the lack of congruence between the needs and expectations of individual employees and the organisations that employ them. 

The impact of the work depends heavily on reasoning skills. Chris Argyris used strong, well-structured arguments to make his point. His reasoning has strong implications for solving a problem that many organizations experience: disengaged and disloyal employees. Grounding his argument in studies on human nature, Argyris highlighted that demands of greater independence, an expansion of interests, and re-orientation of goals usually accompany maturation, which is at odds with higher control stemming from formal organisations. This frustration, he contends, is detrimental to productivity, increases the chance of failure and causes conflict.

chapter |5 pages

Ways in to the Text

section 1|17 pages


chapter 1|4 pages

The Author and the Historical Context

chapter 2|4 pages

Academic Context

chapter 3|4 pages

The Problem

chapter 4|4 pages

The Author’s Contribution

section 2|17 pages


chapter 5|4 pages

Main Ideas

chapter 6|4 pages

Secondary Ideas

chapter 7|4 pages


chapter 8|4 pages

Place in the Author’s Work

section 3|17 pages


chapter 9|4 pages

The First Responses

chapter 10|4 pages

The Evolving Debate

chapter 11|4 pages

Impact and Influence Today

chapter 12|4 pages

Where Next?