Ivor Armstrong Richards was one of the founders of modern literary criticism. He enthused a generation of writers and readers and was an influential supporter of the young T.S. Eliot. Principles of Literary Criticism was the text that first established his reputation and pioneered the movement that became known as the 'New Criticism'. Highly controversial when first published, Principles of Literary Criticism remains a work which no one with a serious interest in literature can afford to ignore.

chapter 1|6 pages

The Chaos of Critical Theories

chapter 2|7 pages

The Phantom Aesthetic State

chapter 3|6 pages

The Language of Criticism

chapter 4|9 pages

Communication and the Artist

chapter 5|4 pages

The Critics' Concern with Value

chapter 6|6 pages

Value as an Ultimate Idea

chapter 7|13 pages

A Psychological Theory of Value

chapter 8|5 pages

Art and Morals

chapter 9|7 pages

Actual and Possible Misapprehensions

chapter 10|9 pages

Poetry for Poetry's Sake

chapter 11|10 pages

A Sketch for A Psychology

chapter 12|6 pages


chapter 13|5 pages

Emotion and the Coenesthesia

chapter 14|4 pages


chapter 15|6 pages


chapter 16|18 pages

The Analysis of a Poem

chapter 17|12 pages

Rhythm and Metre

chapter 18|13 pages

On Looking at a Picture

chapter 19|7 pages

Sculpture and the Construction of Form

chapter 20|6 pages

The Impasse of Musical Theory

chapter 21|5 pages

A Theory of Communication

chapter 22|6 pages

The Availability of the Poet's Experience

chapter 23|5 pages

Tolstoy's Infection Theory

chapter 24|9 pages

The Normality of the Artist

chapter 25|7 pages

Badness in Poetry

chapter 26|4 pages

Judgement and Divergent Readings

chapter 27|4 pages

Levels of Response and The Width of Appeal

chapter 28|6 pages

The Allusiveness of Modern Poetry

chapter 29|3 pages

Permanence as a Criterion

chapter 30|5 pages

The Definition of a Poem

chapter 31|10 pages

Art, Play, and Civilization

chapter 32|13 pages

The Imagination

chapter 33|7 pages

Truth and Revelation Theories

chapter 34|11 pages

The Two Uses of Language

chapter 35|15 pages

Poetry and Beliefs