Kenya’s 2007 General Election results announcement precipitated the worst ethnic conflict in the country’s history; 1,133 people were killed, while 600,000 were internally displaced. Within 2 months, the incumbent and the challenger had agreed to a power-sharing agreement and a Government of National Unity.

This book investigates the role of socio-cultural origins of ethnic conflict during electoral periods in Kenya beginning with the multi-party era of democratization and the first multi-party elections of 1992, illustrating how ethnic groups construct their interests and cooperate (or fail to) based on shared traits. The author demonstrates that socio-cultural traditions have led to the collaboration (and frequent conflict) between the Kikuyu and Kalenjin that has dominated power and politics in independent Kenya. The author goes onto evaluate the possibility of peace for future elections.

This book will be of interest to scholars of African democracy, Kenyan history and politics, and ethnic conflict.

chapter |10 pages


chapter 1|16 pages

A brief history of Kenya

From colony to independence

chapter 4|19 pages

Change to believe in

New beginnings

chapter 5|19 pages

Reconfiguring the politiscape

Return of history and the end of hope

chapter 7|19 pages

Contemporary Kenya

First half-century and opportunities

chapter 8|24 pages

Concluding thoughts

2017: lessons of 2007, 2010 and 2013