There has been a significant increase in the twenty-first century in the frequency and intensity of violent incidents in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the far northwest province of China, where the Uyghurs, the Turkic-speaking Muslim people who historically constituted the majority population, feel themselves displaced and discriminated against by the growing in-migration of Han Chinese. The book explores the continuing unrest in Xinjiang. It focuses in particular on the major violence of July 2009 in the city of Urumqi, on repression and the practice of Islam in southern Xinjiang, and on the policy of the Chinese Communist Party which has used the rhetoric of the "War on Terror" to justify its repression in terms which it hopes will gain sympathy from the international community. The book relates these particular points to the development of China-Uyghur relations more broadly in the longer historical perspective, and concludes by discussing how the situation is likely to unfold in future.

chapter |27 pages


Xinjiang and the dead hand of history

part 1|62 pages

Deep roots of the Xinjiang conflict

chapter 1|18 pages

Turkic Muslims and the Chinese state

Centuries of conflict

chapter 2|26 pages

Escalation of violence in the 1990s

part 2|74 pages

Urumqi, Kashgar, Khotan

chapter 4|23 pages

Two days that shook Urumqi

July 5–6, 2009

chapter 5|33 pages

Kashgar and Khotan since 2010

Islam, ethnicity and traditional Uyghur culture in southern Xinjiang 1

chapter 6|16 pages

Xi Jinping administration and Xinjiang

Widening conflict and the search for new strategies

part 3|33 pages

Conflict and resolution in Xinjiang